Monday, September 16, 2019

The Water Wars In Central Asia Environmental Sciences Essay

â€Å" Water promises to be to the twenty-first century what oil was to the twentieth century: the cherished trade good that determines the wealth of states † . The 20th century governed states with the kernel of industry – rough oil. Even today it is the focal point of international struggle, ordering a states ability to map in both planetary political relations and the planetary economic system. The 21st century promises to regulate states with the kernel of life – clean H2O. Driven by fickle conditions forms, intensive irrigation, and population force per unit areas, H2O is increasingly going a scarce trade good and is developing into a accelerator of international instability and struggle. An illustration of H2O ‘s ability to impact an country in the 21st century can be found in the Central Asian States, and the dehydration of the Aral Sea. The enlargement of irrigated agricultural land area and hydroelectric power, determined to be the root causes of the Aral Sea catastrophe, have continued due to miss of collaborative action by the freshly independent provinces of the part. The Amu Darya and the Syr Darya supply fresh water to the upstream provinces of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Southeastern Kazakhstan, and the downstream states Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Southwestern Kazakhstan. These states are going progressively competitory over H2O in the part, go forthing the dehydration of natural formations like the Aral Sea as an acceptable cost. The competition over H2O comes from the H2O intensive cotton harvest, which dominates the agribusiness in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Southwestern Kazakhstan. Cotton provides a important foreign currency earn er for the part and is a major supplier of employment, but demands big sums of H2O from the part, which the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers struggle to supply. The indiscriminate usage of H2O to fuel cotton production has been in pattern since the early 1960 ‘s and is doing terrible environmental jobs, such as the drying of the Aral Sea, clime alteration, H2O and dirt salt, and H2O, dirt and air pollution. Increasing poverty, quickly turning populations, and the pattern of â€Å" economic patriotism † alternatively of regional cooperation by the autocratic governments of part, are the ingredients for future tenseness, societal instability, and possible struggle in Central Asia. These developments will be interpreted in a political economic system model, going from the Soviet ‘s forced cotton production, which is analyzed in the 2nd subdivision of this paper. Water is an progressively scarce resource in the part that is under force per unit area stemming from economic involvements, such as hydroelectric coevals and agricultural production. The environmental involvements of biodiversity, bettering supports of the part ‘s population and the resurgence of the Aral Sea are underrepresented and hence unheard. The environmental debasement of the Aral Sea is examined in greater item in the 3rd subdivision of this paper. The dehydration of the Aral Sea has far making effects in the part, impacting the clime and biodiversity. Desert air currents can transport 1000000s of dozenss of contaminated sand and salt from the country that was one time the Aral Sea, and lodge them on agricultural land all over the part. The effects of these polluted sand and salt sedimentations are farther amplified by the hapless drainage systems and the eventful H2O logging, that have caused dirt salt to go an increasing environmental job. Rising salt degrees have cause the ecology of the part to degrade to the point where many countries are going inhospitable, due to the barbarous downward spiral fueled by poorness and environmental debasement. The concluding subdivision critics the institutional model behind the H2O direction of the part. Foregrounding the displacement from a centrally run allotment of H2O by the Ministries of Land Reclamation and Water Resources ( Minvodkhoz ) located in Moscow to more regionally located signifiers of H2O direction, following the prostration of the Soviet Union. Since so it has become imperative that upstream states like Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Southeastern Kazakhstan jointly allocate H2O resources with downstream states like Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Southwestern Kazakhstan. New establishments have been created to supervise this procedure as each twelvemonth, at the presidential degree ; understandings are negotiated to stipulate the sum of H2O allocated to each state. There has been small alteration at the micro-level except in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, where Water Users ‘ Associations ( WUA ) have been established. In both Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, both major consumer s of H2O, the cardinal allotment and direction of H2O is still practiced in the absence of local reforms. The â€Å" usage it or lose it † rule, the result of the Soviet ‘s centrally planned H2O allotment patterns, are still in pattern due to the deficiency of countenances forestalling the abuse or inducements advancing the preservation of H2O. The continued ingestion of H2O at current degrees, coupled with the low efficiency ratios soon practiced, will take to increased degrees of dirt salt and the farther irreversible debasement of the Aral Sea basin. In a divided Central Asia stricken with a deteriorating environment, the scarceness of H2O has lead to increased tensenesss and may, given clip, lead to serious struggle. Many in the part believe that entree to H2O is â€Å" God-Given, † which contributes to the local authorities ‘s deficiency of concrete action against the current scarceness confronting the part, that is itself semisynthetic. Merely reduced and more efficient ingestion of H2O in Aral Sea basin supervised by efficient micro and macro-organizations, coupled with interregional cooperation, would be able to come on the part to a sustainable hereafter.The Soviet ‘s Management of WaterThe former Soviet Central Asia consists of chiefly steppes and comeuppances. This environment had traditionally limited the development of colonies and the attach toing agribusiness to oases, fed by rivers or belowground reservoirs known as aquifers. Soviet regulation changed all this, with forced collectivisation. Much of the traditional methods of sustainable cropping forms were forcibly altered to large-scale individual harvest methods that required a H2O direction substructure composed of surface irrigation systems. Regions like the Fergana Valley that were irrigated and specialized in cotton as a hard currency harvest, had a considerable comparative advantage over countries non bring forthing â€Å" white gold † . In the early 1960 ‘s Moscow took notice of this comparative advantage and began to make a quasi-monoculture, turning Cardinal Asia into a natural stuffs manufacturer for the fabric industries of the more cardinal Soviet Union. Cotton rapidly became the life-bread of the outer agriculturally based Soviet democracies, an indispensable trade good in their political economic systems. This patterned advance is illustrated by the province of Uzbekistan, which became one the largest cotton bring forthing states in the universe. The success or failure of cotton began to order the destiny of political elites in the Soviet Socialistic Republics ( SSRs ) , which lead to extended corruptness such as the over and underreporting of cotton production and the forced organisation of labou r to optimise cotton production. These corrupt patterns shortly became basiss of Uzbek, Tajik, and Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republics ‘ economic systems and the agricultural industry of the part. As the production of cotton in the Central Asiatic part increased quickly, the demand for H2O became despairing, due to the clime ‘s agricultural inhospitality and demand for irrigation. Water, at the clip, seemed copiously supplied by the Amu Darya and Syr Darya and lead to the building of great canals like the KaraKum canal, stretching more than 1,100 kilometer from the Amu Darya to Turkmenistan. The cragged countries of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan are the get downing point for both rivers, which are mostly consumed by the agriculturally demanding countries of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This division between upstream and downstream states and the resulting differential entree is one of the chief causes of tenseness refering H2O use in the part. The moneymaking enlargement of cotton land area, best illustrated by Uzbekistan, created a quickly increasing demand for agricultural irrigation, and began deviating mass measures of H2O to provide it. In Uzbekistan cotton ‘s enlargement was unprecedented, spread outing from an end product of 441,600 hectares in 1913, to 1,022,600 sunburns in 1940, to 1,427,900 sunburns in 1960, to every bit much as 2,103,000 sunburns in 1987. In Uzbekistan cotton became known as â€Å" King Cotton † , providing a antecedently bare state with an unprecedented hard currency harvest and provided employment to the bulk of its citizens. The Uzbek ‘s flourishing cotton industry had one fatal defect: it relied wholly on the handiness of H2O, in a part missing abundant H2O. The efficiency of H2O use was minimum due to a hapless substructure trusting on unlined and exposed canals, where escape is highly high, with the bulk of H2O either evaporating or oozing into the land. These inefficient H2O direction patterns lead to a diminishing sum of H2O really making the Aral Sea, and by the 1960 ‘s the sum of H2O making the Aral Sea began to dunk below the 50 kmA? to keep the sea degree at the clip. In the 30 old ages that followed ( 1960-1990 ) , the Aral Sea shank to merely half its original surface country. By the twelvemonth 2007 the Aral Sea had shrunk to merely ten per centum of its original size. The lay waste toing toll on the environment caused by the irresponsible, regulated, and irreguardless ingestion of H2O in the part, at this point can non be reversed, and has threatened to do the full part inhospitable due to the salinization of its dirt. Interestingly plenty the drying out of the Aral Sea did non halt or even decelerate during the decennary of passage from Soviet regulation. The freshly independent states were concerned with their ain single wellbeing, with a focal point on the employment and foreign currency cotton production brought, instead than that of the part as a whole. The states of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, were trapped politically to maintain cotton production changeless even when spread outing the production of other harvests. This was due to cotton ‘s incontestable value in the states ‘ economic systems, disenabling policy shapers from traveling to more sustainable resource direction even if they wanted to. The agricultural demand for H2O by the downstream states and the hydroelectric demand by upstream states, over the last 10 old ages, have non been contained. Agricultural H2O usage has remained more or less the same, even with a displacement to more diverse and sustainable harvests. Overall cropping forms for the Central Asiatic part was 40 % cotton and 7 % wheat in 1990, which shifted to 35 % cotton and 30 % wheat by 2000. This displacement resulted in no bead in H2O ingestion, even though wheat is a less water-intense harvest. This is due to the parts deficiency of efficient H2O conveyance substructure and H2O direction, show by the remarkably high demand for H2O, in comparing to other cotton bring forthing states. The deficiency of authorities financess to better substructure and educate citizens about efficient H2O direction could be blamed, but in all world the demand for a revival of self-sustainable agriculture patterns in the part is what is truly needed.Management & A ; Refo rmsAfter the prostration of the Soviet Union, the centralized and regionally focussed H2O direction tactics antecedently practiced were abandoned. New national and regional organisations were formed during the passage period after 1991. An understanding was reached during February of 1992 to organize the Interstate Commission for Water Coordination ( ICWC ) , comprised of the five freshly independent Central Asian states. This organisation was responsible for H2O allotment in the Aral Sea basin, but lacked the foresight to turn to jobs like H2O quality, salt, and the authorization to efficaciously pull off possible struggle state of affairss that could happen. In March of 1993 a subsequent understanding established organisations like the Interstate Council on the Aral Sea ( ICAS ) , moving as an consultative commission for the five provinces of the part. This lead to the formation of the International Fund for the Aral Sea ( IFAS ) in order to fund the assorted activities of ICAS, f ollowed by the constitution of a Sustainable Development Commission, concentrating on protecting the environment of the part and socioeconomic development. ICAS and IFAS were shortly merged to organize a new IFAS empowered by a board of deputy curates, giving the organisation comparatively more power. At the basin degree of the Syr Darya and Amu Darya, H2O direction was delegated to single Water Basin Associations or Basseynoe Vodnoe Ob'edinenie ( BVOs ) . These organisations oversaw the H2O direction of basins that affected five freshly independent provinces, including the communicating substructure, pumping systems, canals, power supply, and distribution systems from the several rivers beginning to its basin on the Aral Sea. These BVOs did non nevertheless control drainage, as this duty fell to the national H2O governments. Dispite the bureaucratic muss that the complexnesss and sheer figure of bureaus that were created to cover with H2O direction in the part, organisations like the BVOs lacked the support of international jurisprudence, intending that understandings and resource direction put for the by these organisations could be ignored with no effect. This deficiency of authorization is farther illustrated by the absent acknowledgment by province legislative assemblies and the support duties, proportionate to H2O allotment portions, which merely two of five states on a regular basis complied with. The deficit of support besides hampered the ability of BVOs and similar organisations to map and even keep the basic substructure that they were founded to set up. Originally IFAS was to be financed yearly by allotments of one per centum of the five member states Gross National Product, this figure was reduced to 0.3 % for Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan, and to 0.1 % for Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. These decreases in budget allotments were farther impeded by late payments and the deficiency of payment wholly, as some provinces concluded that the financess allocated for IFAS would be better utilized within their ain boundary lines. This meant that organisations like IFAS could non number on regular parts to fund direct operationa l costs or to fund larger substructure care, fix, and betterment doing the bing H2O direction construction to farther deteriorate.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Michel et Augustin Essay

In 1978, Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield launched Ben & Jerry’s, an ice-cream brand made from milk products and 100% natural ingredients. Two young students, Augustin Paluel-Marmont and Michel de Rovira have decided to take example from this mythical brand (as well as Innocent), and launch their own brand of biscuits: Michel et Augustin! The story of their brand building is truly a successful adventure, which gives by the way a whole meaning and a huge capital of sympathy to their brands, what the two friends are far from hiding, on the contrary†¦ They wanted to recreate the delicious biscuits of their â€Å"grandma† by gathering all the best and natural ingredients. But their positioning is not only about tradition and nostalgia, on the contrary. Admittedly, they use souvenirs as Proust and its famous Madeleines to hit their target – the 18-25 years old living in city – but want to go beyond tradition. Indeed they claim a return of quality, but in a modern, original and more often crazy way! Values & Identity: a new way of defining itself => put joy of life and fun at base corporate value Michel et Augustin have created a new way of claiming values, which contributes totally to their original brand identity, which could seem not really serious at first sight. The brand value corresponds fundamentally to both friends’ values. And no need to try to understand them, if you do not know the story of these two young entrepreneurs. Michel was consultant in strategy and Augustin was in Air France Marketing. The both young men were on tracks to build a great career. But they decided to drop everything to make their dreams come true, to live their own passion! Indeed, they did not recognize themselves in the traditional corporate value. They wanted something more, something different, whit less constraints and more joy of life! Then, they launched in 2004 their own brand of biscuits and milk products, surrounded by those unconventional values, converging to one motto, one mutual dream: â€Å"Make the world smile†. And those values, incarnated in the good mood are far from being only a marketing communication. Beyond their headquarter which is called â€Å"the Bananeraie†, their slogan â€Å"Les trublions du bon gout† and their â€Å"crazy† and unexpected packaging, the atmosphere of the firm is truly defined by this central value. Both co-directors claim the same value, as simplicity, enjoy life, solidarity, sense of the effort, in their communication than in the place of work. Thus, the 31 workers of the â€Å"Bananeraie† form the â€Å"tribu†, Michel is the â€Å"calife†, Augustin â€Å"the Vizir†, and Nicolas, the accounting manager, the â€Å"conteur de bonnes nouvelles†. Good news is announced by ringing the bell in the office†¦ In short, Michel et Augstin advocates new values, based on sincerity and fun, which are totally conveyed within their management. Their website conveys as well their will of differentiation. As example (below), they denounce on their website the usual cliche on food product benefits. Instead of giving these controversial and usual reasons to like their products, they put forward the simplest and most basic reason to like them: because they are good and fun! And all this convivial values are aimed to one objective: build a deep and true relationship with their customer. Make the world smile† is then far easier when the values are supported by the brand and the employees themselves! Events, website and packaging become next the ambassadors of those values among the customers! One question remains, is it possible to claim fun, in communication as well as in workplace while being serious in his job? Indeed, as they are facing an increasing growth, with all responsibilities and issues coming by, it will be more and more complicated to keep such a spirit of work†¦ Packaging => An instrumental way to convey their values They do not play the cart of nostalgia, on the contrary! The brand wants to build a great complicity with its customers, in a fun and simple way, without any hypocrisy. Then, the name â€Å"Michel et Augustin† and the logo (drawn in a caricature style) are made to convey an enthusiastic impression, far away from usual institutional statements. Thus, for more interactivity, they go until giving their email addresses and their phone number on the back pack of products! We can then say, without exaggerating, that the four criteria of a good packaging are fulfilled. Indeed, their packaging is fully: Attractive thanks to its strong originality (story of the brand told in a fun way on the back pack, attractive colors which are well standing out in shelf – with the violet for example – ) * Functional, really easy to open, does not take too much place * Easy to produce and inexpensive * Coherent with the brand value (cf. the phone number, best example of the brand humor and the will of nearness with its customers) Communication => a â€Å"street† Marketing aligned with their spirit The art of the â€Å"story telling† they stress so much is obviously one of their priorities in their marketing strategy. Although this brand counts from now one among strong and solid alimentary firms, it can really not compete with Danone or Nestle from a communication budget point of view. Indeed, it is not possible for this launching brand to dispense large amoung in TV advertising, or huge communication campaign. It has to be clever about it, and find creative and cheap way to become famous. And Michel et Augustin has precisely found the right way to do so, by cultivating this story telling art, mixed with their crazy and bluffing behavior. The both creators acknowledge that their product packaging is their best weapon to reach and target the customers. Yet, they did succeed to create the buzz with unexpected events. For example, they benefited from the huge media retransmission for the â€Å"Entrepreneurs Salon† by putting their yoghourt bottle at the Bill Gates‘ table. Thanks to its initiative, they were exposed in front of the â€Å"whole† world, as the bottle with the cow was filmed with Gates drinking it! Best inexpensive advertising ever!

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Phones a Blessing or a Curse Essay

Technology plays a significant role in our daily lives; technology has without a doubt, made our lives very easy for us. Technology, along with its unlimited advantages also has a lot of disadvantages. Technology is a gift to ourselves so that we can live our lives more comfortably but many people tend to abuse this gift for their own pleasure or personal gain. Cell Phone is one such device that has made our life so easy that we cannot even think of a world without it. This electronic device has multiple uses and functions. It has become an important part and parcel of our life. Without cell phones we usually feel incomplete. Trendy and stylish cell phones have become a part of fashion now days. It has now become a multi-utility device, and not just remain a communication device. see more:essay on mobile phone advantages and disadvantages wikipedia Uses of cell phones: †¢ Mobile phones are the most convenient and fastest means of communication. You can call anyone from anywhere and anytime. †¢ It is a great source of entertainment also. We can play games, listen to music, talk to your friends, send messages, and so on when we get bored. †¢ It can be used for capturing and storing important information. †¢ It can function as a radio. We can listen to music while driving and traveling. †¢ Mobiles can replace watches to check the time and alarm clocks that wakes us up. †¢ Our voice can also be recorded in our mobiles. †¢ It can be used as a torch when the light goes. †¢ Mobiles with cameras are used to take photos and making videos. We can also freeze our memorable moments. †¢ Mobiles also have calendars to check days and dates. †¢ We can download our favorite songs, wallpapers, ring tones, and movies in our mobile. †¢ If we lost the way, we can use our mobile and call for help. †¢ Use mobile phones in place of paper and pen. This saves paper, which in turn saves trees. †¢ Mobile phones having the facility of calculator help to do mental calculations.

Friday, September 13, 2019

The Law of Contract Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

The Law of Contract - Case Study Example Almost all these principles guiding the Contract Law are principles of common law and are mainly based on the human development since ages. Law of Contracts mainly stands on undertakings, promises and acceptances. Birmingham Garden Centre had advertised that the first person that will present all 21 numbered from 1 to 21 coupons printed in The Mail in February and March 2006, on 1st of April 2006, would be able to get a free summerhouse. This caused many people including Jim to collect vouchers carefully after buying the Newspaper every day with editions, and Jim had even dreamt of getting the house for his disabled wife Renee. On the mentioned day, when he presented all the vouchers as demanded, he was told that it was a mere April fool's Day trick. Still this contract cannot be stated as void, because the contract was not illegal2. Contract cannot be termed as viodable3 either because even though there is nothing to prevent a minor from participating in the challenge, it is not specifically for minors. There is no uncertainty and incompleteness in the contract. Terms are clear and definite. Incompleteness need not bother the contract as it is a unilateral contract and meant to be so, almost one-sided. There are no unenforceable clauses like those in American spy contracts. One question that comes to mind immediately is the outrage that the owners of BGC could fool gullible people to that extent. There must be legal remedies against such heartless actions. 1. Whether a contract exists between Jim and BGS In Law of Contracts, unwritten contracts of this kind are called Unilateral Contracts. Usually the offerer asks for an act or information in return to an award; like an amount of money in return to some information, or tracing a pet animal, or some other act by doing which, the promised amount or some object will be paid. These contracts are called Unilateral because only one party appears on the scene and for the other party it is not binding. The second party has not promised anything, and is legally protected. But the first party has made his promise and hence is the promisor. Even though there is no written contract between Birmingham Garden Centre and Jim, there is a semblance of it, because BGC advertised in The Mail that person who collects 21 vouchers printed in The Mail will be entitled for a summer house and Jim, being aware that his disabled wife Renee will have a better life with open air, sunshine and garden, if he manages to get a summer house, has collected all the required coupons and was the first person to present it on the April 1st, as instructed by the advertisement, only to be dampeningly told that it was an April Fools' Day joke. There are many aspects of this case that are thought provoking. To make their presence felt, BGC advertised in the newspapers about the vouchers connecting the vouchers

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Biology and Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Biology and Society - Essay Example When the population of a less developed country increases, government faces the pressure of increased demand while the supply of services and facilities is limited owing to the limited budget of the country. In less developed countries, the infrastructure is poor and weak. The population of poor people with a substandard lifestyle is high. People are not much educated. Still, there is abundance of talent while the job opportunities are limited. All these factors encourage people to adopt unique ways of surviving through the hard times. Many people start informal small businesses of their own. A substantial population of people in the less developed countries renders services to foreign countries. Although the population is high, yet the pressure on the government is alleviated as hundreds of thousands of people from these less developed countries migrate to the advanced countries in search of better opportunities of education and employment and have a high standard of living in gener al. Many people from such less developed countries as India, Pakistan, and China migrate to the US, the UK, and such other developed countries every year. So the pressure of increased population is essentially shared by the advanced countries. ... Even though they are advanced economies, and have abundance of means and resources, yet there is not a substantial difference between how things are done in the less developed countries and how they are done in the advanced countries. Although there is considerable expenditure on research and development in the advanced countries, yet most of the projects are in their initial stages and are not developed enough to replace the old ways of doing things. Let’s take the hydrogen cars for example. Hydrogen car operates differently from the fuel-operated cars in that it does not use gasoline and accordingly does not cause air pollution like the fuel-operated cars do. Hydrogen cars produce steam while fuel-operated cars produce exhaust. Clearly, hydrogen cars are more environment friendly as compared to the fuel-operated cars. However, a vast majority of people even in the advanced countries drive the fuel-operated cars. Hydrogen cars are used by a minority of people since they are v ery expensive and are not produced in large numbers. As it is said, â€Å"The car of the future [the hydrogen car] is here today. Of course, you can't buy one yet† (Lampton). The bigger contributor to the reduction of environmental health and safety is growing consumption of natural resources by the advanced countries. The more the resources are consumed, the more the pollution is created. Whether it is air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, or any kind of pollution, it is more where there is more development. In fact, the very development with the use of the natural resources is what makes the advanced economies advanced. â€Å"Even the availability of grain is affected more by rising livestock numbers and the use of biofuels – driven, again by consumption – than by human

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Quality Management Assessment Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Quality Management Assessment Summary - Essay Example stomer’s expectations, quality management programs are put in place to ensure that services rendered to customers meet the suggestions brought forth by customers through suggestion boxes and social network forums. Quality management assessment is also carried out to identify problems facing various departments of the hospital. This purpose is achieved because in the course of assessing staff and departmental heads for the quality of service they render, the opportunity comes for management to know common areas that staff normally falls short – therefore common problems of the hospital. Quality management assessment also paves way for building strong commitment among workers. The commitment building sets in as employees are constantly assured that management are concerned about their problems and take steps towards solving. Finally through quality management assessment, opportunity is created to promote open decision-making among workers of the hospital because quality m anagement assessment is conducted in a democratic and open manner where all workers are given the opportunity to bring on board problems that face them in their departments. Quality management assessment has several components that come together to make the phenomenon more of a process rather than an event. Because it is a process, quality management assessment comes with a number of key concepts. Three of such concepts are that quality management assessment applies analytical tools, uses process techniques and integrates other management concepts. Kaluzny, McLaughlin and Simpson (1992) notes that quality management assessment employs analytical tools â€Å"such as flow and statistical charts and check sheets, to gather data about activities within an organization.† This means that quality management assessment opens itself up to quantitative analysis that makes results gathered from quality management assessments very empirical and reliable. On process techniques, there is always the adoption of

Education and Professional Studies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Education and Professional Studies - Essay Example This paper approves that The context of primary education in England and Wales in which the ideology of child-centered education is still central, it is not possible to devise any assessment task or test to be implemented by teachers, which will not be subject to very considerable contextual effects. The National Curriculum is a statement of educational entitlement to which no child should be denied. To withdraw a child’s entitlement by disapplying the National Curriculum requires strong justification. The Code of Practice on special educational needs reiterates the inclusivity of the National Curriculum: ‘Children with special educational needs require the greatest possible degree of access to a broad and balanced curriculum including the National Curriculum’. This paper makes a conclusion that one way of utilising children’s motivation for learning and of building on this is to encourage children to develop their own interests through topic- or project-based learning. The extent to which a topic approach to developing learning is motivating for children may depend on how the topic is chosen. Ways of introducing topics range from wholly child-centred to more strongly teacher-initiated. At the child-centred end are situations in which learning develops naturally from a child’s firsthand experiences. This approach requires much careful teacher guidance of children and direct teaching when the need for this is apparent. Its great strength is that it starts with the child’s interests but difficulty arises in ensuring progression, balance and breadth in learning.